Beginning in the late 1970s and continuing to the present, there has evolved a distinctive and largely cohesive system of thought associated with the punk subculture.
Individualism, anti-authoritarianism, political anarchism, free thought, and ethics are concepts, among others, that are addressed by this philosophy. Punk ideology views the world and most that are in it as deeply corrupt and wrong. Punk thoughts usually achieve expression through punk music, fanzines, and spoken-word albums.
The driving ethic behind most sincere Punk efforts is DIY-- Do It Yourself. We don't need to rely on rich business men to organize our fun for their profit- we can do it ourselves for no profit. We Punks can organize gigs... put out records, publish books and fanzines, set up mail order distributions for our products, run record stores...We do all of these things, and we do them well. Can any other youth-based counterculture of the 80's and 90's claim so much?
Profane Existence #11/12
From the environmentalist to the video activist, the raver to the road protester, the neo-pagan to the anarcho-capitalist. The counterculture of the nineties offers a vibrant, provocative and positive alternative to institutionalized unemployment and the restricted freedoms and legislated pleasures of UK plc.
DiY Culture: Party & Protest in Nineties Britain by George McKay
link road | McLibel | RTS | EF! |tilo | Hund subs | LETS | Football |
People | Squatters | Queer | Pensioners
| Peace | Free Parties | Acid House | CJA | Twyford Down
| SchNEWS | Squall | Urban 75 | Do or Die ]
A sign in the courthouse summed up DIY philosophy
DIY culture, Justice? and Exodus by Mary Anna Wright (from Ecstasy and the Dance Culture)
by Elaine Brass and Sophie Poklewski Koziell. Edited by Denise Searle.
The Big Issue: London, 1997
a social movement which supports the international integration of globalization but demands that values of democracy, economic justice, environmental protection, and human rights be put ahead of purely economic concerns.
Early mainframe computers were extremely expensive, it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input, it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users.
Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy.
In the 1960s and 1970s, software was not considered to be a product but rather an add-on the mainframe vendors gave to their customers to use the computers at all. In that culture, programmers and developers frequently shared their software freely among each other.
Richard Stallman, a software programmer at the MIT AI Lab, had problems with the lab's printer jamming; he set about fixing the software. ...done this before with the old printer. Stallman tries to get the source code to change the driver software, but he can't get it. Xerox only supplied a machine-readable program, not the source code.
Richard Stallman worked on a Lisp interpreter. Symbolics asked to use this software. Stallman agreed to supply them with a public domain version of his work. Symbolics improved the Lisp interpreter, but when he wanted access to the improvements that Symbolics had made to his interpreter, they refused.
[Originally, someone who makes furniture with an axe]
A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular. The term is often misused in a pejorative context, where
cracker would be the correct term. See also: cracker.
The hacker norm of
information wants to be free was a threat to emerging computer companies who had a proprietary interest in making sure that software could be sold and hardware secrets kept hidden from their competition... (vital) ...for the breakthroughs in the development of personal computing.
Richard Stallman The Last of the Hackers, who vowed to defend the principles of hackerism to the bitter end. Remained at MIT until there was no one to eat Chinese food with.
Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution.
...hackers build things, crackers break them
Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution by Steven Levy
Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer.Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software.
Stallman wants to create a complete operating system - called GNU based on his free software concept, meaning that users are allowed to copy, modify and redistribute it.
On January 5, 1984, Stallman quit his job at MIT so that they could not claim ownership and interfere with distributing GNU as free software.
The purpose of the GPL (GNU General Public License) is to grant the user rights to copy, modify, and redistribute programs (normally prohibited by copyright), and to ensure that those rights are preserved in derivative works via a copyleft mechanism.
free in free software means that the source code has been liberated and anybody may copy and compile it, but that does not exclude payment.
Linus Torvalds, Finnish university student, while attending the University of Helsinki initially wrote the Linux operating system as a hobby. Immediately, thousands of developers around the world participated in the development of Linux.
The fundamental difference between the two movements is in their values, their ways of looking at the world. For the Open Source movement, the issue of whether software should be open source is a practical question, not an ethical one. As one person put it,
Open-Source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement.
Do it yourself or DIY refers to the practice of fabricating or repairing things on one's own rather than purchasing them or paying for professional repair.
In the 1970s, DIY spread through the North American population of college- and recent-college-graduate age groups. In part, this involved simply the renovation of older homes. But it also related to some extent to various projects expressing the social and environmental vision of the '60s and early '70s.
Stewart Brand, a young American visionary, working with friends and family, and initially using the most basic of typesetting and page-layout tools, created issue number one of The Whole Earth Catalog [magazine] in late 1968. It was subtitled Access to Tools.
was the founding executive editor of Wired magazine, and former publisher of the Whole Earth Catalog. Kelly is considered an expert in digital culture, and is said to have helped make technology part of popular culture.
...true creativity needs to be open, fluid, and alive. When it comes to copyright, be pro-choice.
Remix culture is a term employed by Lawrence Lessig to describe a society which allows and encourages derivative works. Such a culture would be, by default, permissive of efforts to improve upon, change, integrate, or otherwise remix the work of copyright holders. Lessig presents this as a desirable ideal and argues, among other things, that the health, progress, and wealth creation of a culture is fundamentally tied to this participatory remix process.
Rules for Remixing, Rael Dornfest
Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc.) apart and analyzing its workings in detail, usually with the intention to construct a new device or program that does the same thing without actually copying anything from the original.
Coined by the futurist Alvin Toffler in his book The Third Wave in 1980. Prosumer is a blend of producer and consumer. The future type of consumer who would become involved in the design and manufacture of products, so they could be made to individual specification. He argued that we would then no longer be a passive market upon which industry dumped consumer goods but a part of the creative process.
From astronomy to activism, from surfing to saving lives, Pro-Ams - people pursuing amateur activities to professional standards - are an increasingly important part of our society and economy.
The Pro-Am Revolution argues this historic shift is reversing. We're witnessing the flowering of Pro-Am, bottom-up self-organisation and the crude, all or nothing, categories of professional or amateur will need to be rethought.
The Pro-Am Revolution, How enthusiasts are changing our economy and society by Charles Leadbeater
Bill Woodcock builds fancy corporate computer networks by day and "chewing gum and baling wire" toasternets by night. He builds these consummate street-tech creatures out of "borrowed, salvaged, reclaimed, recycled, dumpster-dived, and cobbled-together hardware." [ Toasternet ] [ Toasted to a Golden Brown ]